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Architecture of Goa
Goa offers an astoundingly rich architectural heritage to visitors. The extensive excavations and preservation efforts carried out by the Archaeological Survey of India have brought to the fore and restored remnants of ages in the form of ancient sites such as caves, epigraphs, sculptures, religious places like temples, churches, mosques, ancient forts, etc. Besides, a marvelous domestic architecture presented in centuries-old houses of the aristocrats occupies a prominent place in the itinerary of the lovers of architecture.
Developed structural temples appeared during the 10th -13th century AD. These used laterite blocks and basalt for pillars and door frames. Small in size, these temples contained Garbhagriha, antarala and mandapa, pointing to the fusion of Dravida and Nagar styles, without much ornamentation. During the Kadamba Yadava rule, however, ornamentation became pronounced possibly through external influence.
The most striking example of this period and the most famous, ancient extant temple in Goa is the Mahadev temple built of basalt at Tambdi Surla, a thinly populated village at the Goa-Karnataka border, some 65 kilometres east of the capital Panaji. Situated on the bank of a rivulet, this is the only existing black green-tinged basalt stone tradition of Goa, resembling Hoysala and Yadava architecture in the monolith pillars. Shivaratri is the main festival and it is declared a national monument.
A typical Goan temple would consist of a tall, octagonal, pagoda-like deepmal or deepstambha (lamp tower) before the entrance of the main temple in the main courtyard, small subsidiary shrines and a Tulsi Vrindavan (basil enclosure) on the left side of the main temple, a naubatkhana or drum tower for temple musicians to sit above the main entrance and perform, a large temple tank behind the naubatkhana, rath (temple car) shelter on the left, an agrashala (pilgrim rest room and administrative offices surrounding the shrine on both the sides and the back, a porch, sabhamandap (main hall), and ardhamandapa (middle hall) and the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum) housing the deity. After the darshan (seeing) of the deity, it is customary to make a pradakshina or parikrama or clockwise walk around the shrine.
Jesuit Architecture in Goa
The entire building was completed in 1589 under the
able supervision of Br. Domingos Fernandes. Some of its lengthy corridors
and spacious apartments were destroyed by the ravages of time and by the
raging flames of great fires in 1663 and again in 1783. One more storey
on the top was demolished between 1886 and 1887.
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